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What causes depression?
You may already know that depression (MDD) is a complex medical condition. The exact cause is unknown, but it's most likely a combination of several factors: genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological.
Depression and the brain:
- It's thought that certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (chemicals that the brain uses to communicate) are out of balance when you're depressed
- Serotonin is one of the chemicals believed to be affected by depression – it is thought to be involved in the regulation of mood and other functions
Depression can run in families, but not everyone with depression has a family history. Scientists are trying to identify genes involved to understand the role that genetics may play in depression.
Environmental factors that may play a role in depression include trauma, loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, or other stressful situations. Some depressive episodes may occur without an obvious trigger.
If you think you may have depression, there is something you can do about it. The first step is to talk to your healthcare provider about your symptoms.
You can also read about the symptoms of depression below to help you get a better understanding about the types of changes you may be experiencing.
What are the symptoms of depression?
Emotional. Physical. Cognitive.
- Little interest or pleasure in doing things
- Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless
- Trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much
- Feeling tired or having little energy
- Poor appetite, overeating, or considerable weight changes
- Feeling bad about yourself – that you are a failure or having a lot of guilt
- Difficulty concentrating on things or making decisions
- Moving or speaking slowly, so that other people have noticed, or being so restless that you've been moving around a lot
- Thoughts that you would be better off dead, or of hurting yourself in some way
Depression is a complex medical condition that may make it hard to feel like yourself. Talk to your healthcare provider about all of your symptoms and their impact.
You may be suffering from depression if you are experiencing five or more of the symptoms above including either depressed mood or decreased interest or pleasure. In addition, depression is also associated with:
- Symptoms that are new or noticeably worse compared to what they were prior to the episode
- Symptoms that persist for most of the day, nearly every day for at least two consecutive weeks
- Episodes that are accompanied by clinically significant distress or impaired functioning
Talk to your healthcare provider about all of your symptoms and how they affect you.
Myths and facts about depression
Suicidal Thoughts and Actions and Antidepressant Drugs
Antidepressants may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some children, teens or young adults within the first few months of treatment or when the dose is changed. Depression or other serious mental illnesses are the most important causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. People who have (or have a family history of) bipolar illness, or suicidal thoughts or actions may have a particularly high risk. Pay close attention to any changes, especially sudden changes in mood, behavior, thoughts or feelings. Call your healthcare provider right away if symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, impulsivity, trouble sleeping, aggressive behavior or suicidal thoughts are new, worse or worry you. TRINTELLIX has not been evaluated for use in patients under 18.
Do not take TRINTELLIX if you:
- Are allergic to vortioxetine or any of the ingredients in TRINTELLIX
- Take a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI). Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure if you take an MAOI, including the antibiotic linezolid; do not take an MAOI within 21 days of stopping TRINTELLIX; do not start TRINTELLIX if you stopped taking an MAOI in the last 14 days
TRINTELLIX may cause serious side effects including:
Serotonin Syndrome: A potentially life-threatening problem that can happen when medicines such as TRINTELLIX are taken with certain other medicines. Symptoms may include agitation, hallucinations, coma or other changes in mental status; problems controlling movements or muscle twitching, stiffness or tightness; fast heartbeat, high or low blood pressure; sweating or fever; nausea, vomiting or diarrhea.
Abnormal bleeding or bruising: TRINTELLIX and other serotonergic antidepressant medicines may increase your risk of bleeding or bruising, especially if you take the blood thinner warfarin (Coumadin®, Jantoven®), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), or aspirin.
Manic episode: Symptoms may include greatly increased energy; severe trouble sleeping; racing thoughts; reckless behavior; unusually grand ideas; excessive happiness or irritability; talking more or faster than usual.
Visual problems: May include eye pain, changes in vision, swelling or redness in or around the eye. Only some people are at risk for these problems. You may want to undergo an eye examination to see if you are at risk and receive preventative treatment if you are.
Low salt (sodium) levels in the blood: Symptoms may include headache; difficulty concentrating, memory changes or confusion; weakness and unsteadiness on your feet; and in severe or sudden cases hallucinations, fainting, seizures or coma. If not treated, severe low sodium levels can cause death.
Before starting TRINTELLIX, tell your healthcare provider if you have or had liver problems, seizures or convulsions, bipolar disorder (manic depression) or mania, low salt (sodium) levels in your blood, bleeding problems, drink alcohol, have any other medical conditions or if you are pregnant, nursing, plan to become pregnant, or plan to nurse.
TRINTELLIX and some medicines may interact with each other, may not work as well, or may cause serious side effects when taken together. Tell your healthcare provider if you plan on or are taking any other prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements including medicines for migraine headaches, such as triptans; medicines used to treat mood, anxiety, psychotic or thought disorders such as tricyclics, lithium, SSRIs, SNRIs, bupropion, buspirone or antipsychotics; MAOIs including linezolid (a specific antibiotic); over-the-counter supplements such as tryptophan or St. John's wort; and the following medicines: aspirin, NSAIDs, warfarin (Coumadin®, Jantoven®), diuretics, rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, quinidine, tramadol or fentanyl.
Common side effects of TRINTELLIX include: nausea, constipation or vomiting. These are not all the possible side effects of TRINTELLIX.
Do not start or stop taking TRINTELLIX without talking to your healthcare provider first. Suddenly stopping TRINTELLIX when you take higher doses may cause you to have side effects including headache, stiff muscles, mood swings, sudden outbursts of anger, dizziness or feeling lightheaded, or runny nose.
Until you know how TRINTELLIX affects you, do not drive, operate heavy machinery or engage in other dangerous activities.
Avoid drinking alcohol while taking TRINTELLIX.
Talk to your healthcare provider.
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch or
Indication for TRINTELLIX
TRINTELLIX is a prescription medicine used to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults.